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Wednesday, January 7, 2009

List of culinary fruits

List of culinary fruits

This list of culinary fruits contains the names of some fruits that are considered edible in some cuisines. The definition of fruit for these lists is a culinary fruit, i.e. "Any sweet, edible part of a plant that resembles fruit, even if it does not develop from a floral ovary; also used in a technically imprecise sense for some sweet or sweetish vegetables, some of which may resemble a true fruit or are used in cookery as if they were a fruit, for example rhubarb."[citation needed]
Note that many items that are true fruits botanically speaking, are not considered culinary fruits. They are classified as vegetables in the culinary sense, (for example: the tomato, cucumber, zucchini, and so on), and hence they do not appear in this list. There also exist many fruits which are edible and palatable but for various reasons have not become popular.

1 Temperate fruits
1.1 Rosaceae family
1.2 Berries
2 Fruits of Asian origin
3 Fruits of North American origin
4 Fruits of Australian origin
5 Cacti and other succulents
6 Podocarps
7 Herbaceous annuals fruits
7.1 Melons and other members of Cucurbitaceae or Solanaceae family
7.2 Accessory fruits
8 Mediterranean and subtropical fruits
9 Tropical fruits
10 Unsorted
11 See also
12 External links

Temperate fruits
Fruits of temperate climates are almost always borne on trees or woody shrubs or lianas. They will not grow adequately in the tropics, as they need a period of cold (a chilling requirement) each year before they will flower. The apple, pear, cherry, and plum are the most widely grown and eaten, owing to their adaptability. Many other fruits are important regionally but do not figure prominently in commerce. Many sorts of small fruit on this list are gathered from the wild, just as they were in Neolithic times.

Rosaceae family
The family Rosaceae dominates the temperate fruits, both in numbers and in importance. The pome fruits, stone fruits and brambles are fruits of plants in Rosaceae.

The pome fruits:

Apple and crabapple (Malus)
Chokeberry (Aronia)
Hawthorn (Crataegus and Rhaphiolepis)
Loquat (Eryobotrya japonica)
Medlar (Mespilus germanica)
Pear, European and Asian species (Pyrus)
Quince (Cydonia oblonga and Chaenomeles)
Rose hip, the fruitlike base of roses (Rosa); used mostly for jams and herbal tea
Rowan (Sorbus)
Service tree (Sorbus domestica), bears a fruit known as a sorb or sorb apple
Serviceberry or Saskatoon (Amelanchier)
Shipova (× Sorbopyrus auricularis)
The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus:
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca or Armeniaca vulgaris)
Cherry, sweet, black, sour, and wild species (Prunus avium, Prunus serotina, P. cerasus, and others)
Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)
Greengage, a cultivar of the plum
Hybrids of the preceding species, such as the pluot, aprium and peacotum
Peach (of the normal and white variety) and its variant the nectarine (Prunus persica)
Plum, of which there are several domestic and wild species; dried plums are called prunes

In non-technical usage, berry means any small fruit that can be eaten whole and lacks objectionable seeds. The bramble fruits, compound fruits of genus Rubus (blackberries), are some of the most popular pseudo-berries:

Blackberry, of which there are many species and hybrids, such as dewberry, boysenberry, olallieberry, and tayberry (genus Rubus)
Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus)
Loganberry (Rubus loganobaccus)
Raspberry, several species (genus Rubus)
Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis)
Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus)
Wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius)
The true berries are dominated by the family Ericaceae, many of which are hardy in the subarctic:
Bearberry (Arctostaphylos spp.)
Bilberry or whortleberry (Vaccinium spp.)
Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)
Crowberry (Empetrum spp.)
Cranberry (Vaccinium spp.)
Falberry (Vaccinium spp.)
Huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.)
Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)
Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo), not to be confused with the Strawberry (Fragaria)
Other berries not in the Rosaceae or Ericaceae:
Açaí (Euterpe), a palm fruit native to the Amazon region
Barberry (Berberis; Berberidaceae)
Currant (Ribes spp.; Grossulariaceae), red, black, and white types
Eggplant (Solanum melongena Solanaceae), purple berry thought to be a vegetable
Elderberry (Sambucus; Caprifoliaceae)
Gooseberry (Ribes spp.; Grossulariaceae)
Hackberry (Celtis spp.; Cannabaceae)
Honeysuckle: the berries of some species (called honeyberries) are edible, others are poisonous (Lonicera spp.; Caprifoliaceae)
Mulberry (Morus spp.; Moraceae) including:
Red Mulberry (Morus rubra)
White Mulberry (Morus alba)
Mayapple (Podophyllum spp.; Berberidaceae)
Nannyberry or sheepberry (Viburnum spp.; Caprifoliaceae)
Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium; Berberidaceae)
Sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides; Elaeagnaceae)
Sea Grape (Coccoloba uvifera; Polygonaceae)
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Solanaceae), a red juicy berry thought to be a vegetable as served in salads.
Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum, Lycium spp.; Solanaceae)

Fruits of Asian origin
Some fruits native to Asia or of Asian Origin.
Arhat (Siraitia grosvenorii; Cucurbitaceae) Also called longevity fruit
Coconut (Cocos nucifera; Arecaceae)
Che (Cudrania tricuspidata; Moraceae) Also called Cudrania, Chinese Mulberry, Cudrang, Mandarin Melon Berry, Silkworm Thorn, zhe
Durian (Durio spp; Malvaceae)
Goumi (Elaeagnus multiflora ovata; Elaeagnaceae family)
Hardy Kiwi (Actinidia arguta; Actinidiaceae family)
Kiwifruit or Chinese gooseberry (Actinidia spp.; Actinidiaceae)
Mock Strawberry or Indian Strawberry (Potentilla indica; Rosaceae)
Lanzones (Lansium domesticum; Meliaceae family)
Lapsi (Choerospondias axillaris Roxb. Anacardiaceae)
Longan (Dimocarpus longan; Sapindaceae family)
Lychee (Litchi chinensis; Sapindaceae family)
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana; Clusiaceae family)
Nungu (Borassus flabellifer; Arecaceae)
Persimmon (aka Sharon Fruit) (Diospyros kaki; Ebenaceae)
Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum; Sapindaceae family)
Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum; Polygonaceae)
Sageretia (Sageretia theezans; Rhamnaceae) Also called Mock Buckthorn

Fruits of North American origin
Canada, Mexico, and the United States are home to a surprising number of edible plants; however, only three are commercially grown/known on a global scale (grapes, cranberries, and blueberries.) Many of the fruits below are still eaten locally as they have been for centuries and others are generating renewed interest by eco-friendly gardeners (less need for bug control) and chefs alike.
American grape: North American species (e.g., Vitis labrusca; Vitaceae) and American-European hybrids are grown where grape (Vitis vinifera) is not hardy and are used as rootstocks
American Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum; Berberidaceae)
American plum (Prunus americana; Rosaceae
American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana; Ebenaceae): Traditional for desserts and as dried fruit.
Beach Plum (Prunus maritima; Rosaceae)
Black cherry (Prunus serotina; Rosaceae very popular flavoring for pies, jams, and sweets.
Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis or Rubus leucodermis; Rosaceae)
Blueberry (Vaccinium, sect. Cyanococcus; Ericaceae)
Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argenta; Elaeagnaceae), which grows wild in the prairies of Canada
Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana; Rosaceae)
Cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco; Chrysobalanaceae)
Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus; Ericaceae)
False-mastic (Mastichodendron foetidissimum; Sapotaceae)
Florida strangler fig (Ficus aurea; Moraceae)
Ground Plum (Astragalus caryocarpus; Fabaceae), also called Ground-plum milk-vetch
Eastern May Hawthorn (Crataegus aestivalis; Rosaceae, better known as mayhaw.)
Maypop (Passiflora incarnata; [[Passifloracae), traditionally a summer treat.
Pawpaw (Asimina triloba; Annonaceae, not to be confused with Papaya (Carica papaya; Caricaceae), which is called pawpaw in some English dialects)
Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.,; Cactaceae) used as both a fruit and vegetable depending on part of plant.
Red mulberry (Morus rubra; Moraceae)
Pigeon plum (Coccoloba diversifolia; Polygonaceae)
Salal berry (Gaultheria shallon; Ericaceae)
Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis; Rosaceae)
Saskatoonberry (Amerlanchier alnifolia, Rosaceae
Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae)
Southern crabapple (Malus angustifola; Rosaceae)
Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana; Ebenaceae)
Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus; Rosaceae)
Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia; Rosaceae)

Fruits of Australian origin
Although the fruits of Australia were eaten for thousands of years as bushfood by Aboriginal people, they have only been recently recognized for their culinary qualities by non-indigenous people. Many are regarded for their piquancy and spice-like qualities for use in cooking and preserves. Some Australian fruits also have exceptional nutritional qualities, including high vitamin C and other antioxidants.
Atherton Raspberry (Rubus probus; Rosaceae)
Black Apple (Planchonella australis; Sapotaceae)
Blue tongue (Melastoma affine; Melastomataceae)
Bolwarra (Eupomatia laurina; Eupomatiaceae)
Burdekin Plum (Pleiogynium timorense; Anacardiaceae)
Broad-leaf Bramble (Rubus hillii; Rosaceae)
Cedar Bay cherry (Eugenia carissoides; Myrtaceae)
Cluster fig (Ficus racemosa; Moraceae)
Common apple-berry (Billardiera scandens; Pittosporaceae)
Conkerberry (Carissa lanceolata; Apocynaceae)
Davidson's plum (Davidsonia spp.; Cunoniaceae)
Desert fig (Ficus platypoda; Moraceae)
Desert lime (Citrus glauca; Rutaceae)
Doubah (Marsdenia australis; Apocynaceae)
Emu Apple (Owenia acidula; Meliaceae)
Fibrous Satinash (Syzygium fibrosum; Myrtaceae)
Finger Lime (Citrus australasica; Rutaceae)
Illawarra Plum (Podocarpus elatus; Podocarpaceae)
Little gooseberry tree (Buachanania arborescens; Anacardiaceae)
Kakadu lime (Citrus gracilis; Rutaceae)
Kutjera (Solanum centrale; Solanaceae)
Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana; Combretaceae)
Karkalla (Carpobrotus rossii; Aizoaceae)
Lady apple (Syzygium suborbiculare; Myrtaceae)
Lemon aspen (Acronychia acidula; Rutaceae)
Midyim (Austromyrtus dulcis; Myrtaceae)
Mountain pepper (Tasmannia spp.; Winteraceae )
Muntries (Kunzea pomifera; Myrtaceae)
Native Cherry (Exocarpus cupressiformis; Santalaceae)
Native currant (Acrotriche depressa; Ericaceae)
Native gooseberry (Physalis minima; Solanaceae)
Pigface (Carpobrotus glaucescens; Aizoaceae)
Pink-flowered Native Raspberry (Rubus parvifolius; Rosaceae)
Purple apple-berry (Billarderia longiflora; Pittosporaceae)
Quandong (Santalum acuminatum; Elaeocarpaceae)
Riberry (Syzygium luehmannii; Myrtaceae)
Rose-leaf Bramble (Rubus rosifolius; Rosaceae)
Rose myrtle (Archirhodomyrtus beckleri; Myrtaceae)
Sandpaper Fig (Ficus coronata; Moraceae)
Small-leaf tamarind (Diploglottis campbellii; Sapindaceae)
Snow berry (Gaultheria hispida; Ericaceae)
Sweet apple-berry (Billarderia cymosa; Pittosporaceae)
Tanjong (Mimusops elengi; Sapindaceae)
White aspen (Acronychia oblongifolia; Rutaceae)
Wild orange (Capparis mitchellii; Capparaceae)
Wongi (Manilkara kaukii; Sapotaceae)
Yellow plum (Ximenia americana; Olacaceae)
Zig Zag Vine (Melodurum leichhardtii; Annonaceae)

Cacti and other succulents
Several cacti yield edible fruits, which are important traditional foods for some Native American peoples:
Cardón (Pachycereus pringlei; Cactaceae)
Dragonfruit (Hylocereus undatus; Cactaceae), also called pitaya
Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.; Cactaceae)
Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea; Cactaceae)
numerous other species of cacti

Podocarps are conifers in the family Podocarpaceae. The seed cones are highly modified and, in some, the seed is surrounded by fleshy scale tissue, resembling a drupe. These berry-like cone scales are eaten by birds which then disperse the seeds in their droppings and the cones can be eaten in many species. Podocarps are either half-hardy or frost tender, depending on species. Many genera are similar in that they have edible "fruits" and often don't have a common name.
Kahikatea (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides)
Manoao (Manoao colensoi)
Nageia (Nageia spp.)
Podocarpus (Podocarpus spp.)
Prumnopitys (Prumnopitys spp.)
Rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum)

Herbaceous annuals fruits

Melons and other members of Cucurbitaceae or Solanaceae family
Some exceptions to the statement that temperate fruits grow on woody perennials are:
Gourd, (usually regarded as vegetables in cuisine) including, but not limited to:
Butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata)
Cushaw squash (Cucurbita mixta)
Hubbard squash, Buttercup squash (Cucurbita maxima)
Pumpkin, Acorn squash, Zucchini, Summer squash (Cucurbita pepovarieties)
Horned melon (Cucumis metuliferus)
Melon (Cucumis melo): cantaloupe, galia, and other muskmelons, honeydew

Accessory fruits
The accessory fruits, seed organs which are not botanically berries at all::
Raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis, Rhamnaceae) Also called Japanese Raisin Tree
Strawberry (Fragaria spp.; Rosaceae)
[edit] Mediterranean and subtropical fruits
Fruits in this category are not hardy to extreme cold, as the preceding temperate fruits are, yet tolerate some frost and may have a modest chilling requirement. Notable among these are natives of the Mediterranean:

Black mulberry (Morus nigra; Moraceae)
Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas; Cornaceae)
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera; Arecaceae)
Fig (Ficus spp. Moraceae)
Grape, called raisin, sultana, or currant when it is dried. (Vitis spp.; Vitaceae)
Jujube (Ziziphus zizyphus; Rhamnaceae)
Olive (Olea europea; Oleaceae)
Pomegranate (Punica granatum; Punicaceae)
Sycamore fig (Ficus sycomorus. Moraceae) also called old world sycomore or just sycomore.
In the important genus Citrus (Rutaceae), some members are tropical, tolerating no frost. All common species of commerce are somewhat hardy:

Blood Orange
Citron (Citrus medica)
Clementine (Citrus reticulata var. Clementine),
Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi)
Hybrids of the preceding species, such as the Orangelo, Tangelo, Rangpur (fruit) and Ugli fruit
Kumquat (Fortunella)
Lemon (Citrus limon)
Key Lime (Citrus aurantifolia)
Persian lime Also known as tahiti lime.
Kaffir lime (Citrus hystix)
Mandarin (Citrus reticulata),
Orange, of which there are sweet (Citrus sinensis) and sour (Citrus aurantium) species
Pomelo (also known as the shaddock) (Citrus maxima)
Sweet Lemon (Citrus limetta)
Tangerine, and similar
See also: List of Citrus fruits
Other subtropical fruits:
Avocado (Persea americana; Lauraceae)
Carob (Ceratonia siliqua; Fabaceae)
Feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana; Myrtaceae)
Guava (Psidium guajava; Myrtaceae)
Kumquat (Fortunella spp.; Rutaceae)
Longan (Dimocarpus longan; Sapindaceae)
Lúcuma (Pouteria lucuma; Sapotaceae)
Lychee (Litchi chinensis; Sapindaceae)
Passion fruit or Grenadilla (Passiflora edulis and other Passiflora spp.; Passifloraceae) Galendar in some part of east India (Darjeeling)
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea; Fabaceae)
Pond-apple (Annona glabra; Annonaceae) Also called Alligator-apple and Monkey-apple
Strawberry guava (Psidium litorale; Myrtaceae)
Tamarillo or Tree Tomato (Cyphomandra betacea; Solanaceae)
Ugni (Ugni molinae; Myrtaceae)
Yangmei (Myrica rubra; Myricaceae) Also called Yumberry, Yamamomo, Chinese Bayberry, Japanese Bayberry, Red Bayberry, or Chinese strawberry tree

Tropical fruits
Tropical fruit grow on plants of all habitats. The only characteristic that they share is an intolerance of frost.


An array of tropical fruits at University of Hyderabad, India
Abiu (Pouteria caimito)
Acerola (Malpighia glabra; Malpighiaceae), also called West Indian Cherry or Barbados Cherry
Ackee (Blighia sapida or Cupania sapida; Sapindaceae)
African cherry orange (Citropsis schweinfurthii; Rutaceae)
Amazon Grape (Pourouma cecropiaefolia;Moraceae)
Açaí (Euterpe oleracea; Arecaceae), or assai
Babaco (Carica pentagona; Caricaceae)
Bael (Aegle marmelos; Rutaceae)
Banana (Musacea spp.; Musaceae); its starchy variant is the plantain
Barbadine (granadilla; maracujá-açu in Portuguese)
Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L.; Malpighiaceae), also called Acerola, West Indian Cherry
Betel Nut
Bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi; Oxalidaceae) Also called cucumber tree or tree sorrel
Bitter gourd
Black sapote
Bottle gourd also known as Calabash (Lagenaria siceraria; Cucurbitaceae)
Brazil nut
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis; Moraceae)
Burmese grape, or Latka (Baccaurea sapida; Phyllanthaceae)
CamuCamu (Myrciaria dubia; Myrtaceae)
Canistel (Pouteria campechiana; Sapotaceae), also called yellow sapote or "eggfruit"
Cape gooseberry
Carambola (Averrhoa carambola; Oxalidaceae), also called star fruit or five fingers
Cempedak or Champedak (Artocarpus champeden; Moraceae)
Ceylon gooseberry
Chenet (guinep or ackee; pitomba-das-Guinas in Portuguese), also known as Spanish Lime or mamoncillo
Cherimoya (Annona cherimola; Annonaceae)
Chili pepper
Caimito (caimite; related to the yellow abiu - egg fruit)
Custard apple (Annona reticulata; Annonaceae), also called Bullock's Heart
Damson plum (Chrysophyllum oliviforme; Sapotaceae), also called Satin Leaf
Date-plum (Diospyros lotus; Ebenaceae)
Dragonfruit (Hylocereus spp.; Cactaceae), also called pitaya
Durian (Durio spp.; Bombacaceae)
Elephant apple (Dillenia indica; Dilleniaceae)
Giant granadilla
Golden Apple
Guarana (Paullinia cupana; Sapindaceae)
Guavaberry or Rumberry; (Myrciaria floribunda; Myrtaceae)
Hog plum (taperebá in Portuguese)
Horned melon (Cucumis metuliferus; Cucurbitaceae)
Huito (Genipa americana; Rubiaceae); also called jagua, genipap, jenipapo
Indian almond
Indian fig
Indian jujube
Indian Prune (Flacourtia rukan; Flacourtiaceae)
Jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora; Myrtaceae), also called Brazilian Grape Tree
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae), also called nangka
Jambul (Syzygium cumini; Myrtaceae)
Jatobá (Hymenae coubaril; Leguminosae) Caesalpinioideae)
Jocote, also called Jamaica Plum
Kandis (Garcinia forbesii; Clusiaceae)
Keppel fruit (Stelechocarpus burakol; Annonaceae)
Kundong (Garcinia sp.; Clusiaceae)
Langsat (Lansium domesticum), also called longkong or duku
Lanzones (Lansium domesticum; Meliaceae)
Mabolo (Diospyros discolor; Ebenaceae) also known as a velvet persimmon
Macadamia, also known as a Queensland nut
Mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota; Sapotaceae); also known as mamee apple; abricó in Portuguese
Mamoncillo (Melicoccus bijugatus; Sapindaceae), also known as quenepa, genip or Fijian Longan
Manila tamarind (or Monkeypod, Pithecellobium dulce)
Mango (Mangifera indica; Anacardiaceae)
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana; Clusiaceae)
Marang (Artocarpus odoratissima; Moraceae), a breadfruit relative
Melon pear
Monstera (Monstera deliciosa; Araceae) also called Swiss Cheese Plant, Split-leaf Philodendron
Mountain soursop
Mung bean
Naranjilla, Lulo (Solanum quitoense; Solanaceae)
Oil Palm
Papaya (Carica papaya; Caricaceae)
Peach palm
Peanut butter fruit (Bunchosia argentea; Malpighiaceae)
Pequi or Souari Nut (Caryocar brasiliense; Caryocaraceae)
Pewa (peach palm; pupunha in Portuguese)
Pigeon pea
Pili nut
Pineapple (Ananas comosus or Ananas sativas; Bromeliaceae)
Pitomba (Eugenia luschnathiana or Talisia esculenta)
Poha or Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana; Solanaceae)
Pois doux (Inga edulis, ice-cream bean, or inga-cipó in Portuguese)
Poisonleaf (Dichapetalum cymosum) (?)
Pommecythère or pomcité (Spondias cytherea); also known as golden apple, June plum or Jew plum and ambarella, and as cajamanga in Portuguese
Pommerac (Eugenia malaccensis); also known as Otaheite apple; Malay apple; jambo in Portuguese
Pupunha or peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes; Palmae); also known as pewa
Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum; Sapindaceae)
Red Mombin (Spondias purpurea; Anacardiaceae)
Riberry (Syzygium luehmannii; Myrtaceae), also called Lilly Pilly, Lillipilli, Chinese Apple
Ridged gourd
Salak (Salacca edulis), also called snakefruit
Santol (Sandoricum koetjape; Meliaceae)
Sapodilla (Achras/Manilkara zapota; Sapotaceae), also called chiku, mespel, naseberry, sapadilla, snake fruit, sawo
Sea grape
Soncoya (Annona diversifolia)
Soursop (Annona muricata; Annonaceae), also called guanabana
Star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito), also called caimito or caimite
Strawberry guava
Strawberry pear
Sugar apple (Annona squamosa; Annonaceae); ata in Portuguese
Summer squash
Surinam Cherry (Eugenia uniflora; Myrtaceae) also called Brazilian Cherry, Cayenne Cherry, Pitanga
Sweet granadilla
Sweet orange
Sweet pepper
Rose apple (Syzygium jambos; Myrtaceae), also called Malay apple
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica; Caesalpiniaceae)
Water apple
Wax apple (Syzygium samarangense)
Wax gourd
White sapote
Winged bean

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